HERBAL MEDICINE Pharmacy/Apothecary/Materia Medica 1722
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HERBAL MEDICINE Pharmacy/Apothecary/Materia Medica 1722 Picture and Description:
VERY SCARCE, ORIGINAL 1722 EDITION OF: "BOTANICUM OFFICINALE; OR, A COMPENDIOUS HERBAL GIVING AN ACCOUNT OF ALL SUCH PLANTS AS ARE NOW USED IN THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICK." This important 18th century treatise was written by Joseph Miller and printed for E. Bell, et al., London. Historically significant work contains author's authoritative text on herbal materia medica. Landmark treatise has been called the first serious work in English describing plants used for medicinal purposes. Miller's influential work was soon emulated by many other writers on the subject. [ESTC T60575; Henry 1095; Rohde: Old English Herbals, p.220; Wellcome IV p.136; Blake p.305]. "Just as [Samuel] Dale's 'Pharmacologia' may be looked upon as our first rational text-book of Materia Medica, so may Joseph Miller's 'Botanicum Officinale; or a Compendious Herbal giving An Account of all such Plants as are now used in the Practice of Physick. With their Descriptions and Virtues' (London, 1722), be regarded as the first text-book of vegetable Materia Medica, worthy of the name, in the English language." [American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 78]. Elizabeth Blackwell (1700-1758) was encouraged to produce her esteemed "Curious Herbal" by members of the Royal College of Physicians who saw the need for an up-to-date herbal that included accurate illustrations and information about newly-discovered plants from the Americas. Blackwell did both the original drawings and engravings for the work, based on living specimens in the Chelsea Physic Garden, while the text was largely taken from Joseph Miller's "Botanicum Officinale" of 1722. Her work was issued in weekly installments between 1737 and 1739, and was reissued a number of times. An Herbal is a collection of descriptions of plants put together for medicinal purposes. Expressed more elaborately, it is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their virtues [i.e., properties] - and in particular their medicinal, tonic, culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, and the legends associated with them. A herbal may also classify the plants it describes, may give recipes for herbal extracts, tinctures, or potions, and sometimes include mineral and animal medicaments in addition to those obtained from plants. Herbals were often illustrated to assist plant identifications. Herbals were among the first literature produced in Ancient Egypt, China, India, and Europe as wisdom accumulated by herbalists, apothecaries and physicians. Herbals were among the first books to be printed in both China and Europe. In Western Europe herbals flourished for two centuries following the invention of movable type (c. 1470–1670). In the late 17th century, the rise of modern chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology reduced the medicinal value of the classical herbal. As reference manuals for botanical study and plant identification herbals were supplanted by Floras - systematic accounts of the plants found growing in a particular region, with scientifically accurate botanical descriptions, classification, and illustrations. Herbals have seen a modest revival in the western world since the last decades of the 20th century, as herbalism and related disciplines [such as homeopathy and aromatherapy] became popular forms of complementary and alternative medicine. Perhaps the best known herbals were produced in Europe between 1470 and 1670. The invention in Germany of printing from movable type in a printing press c. 1440 was a great stimulus to herbalism. The new herbals were more detailed with greater general appeal and often with Gothic script and the addition of woodcut illustrations that more closely resembled the plants being described. Three important herbals, all appearing before 1500, were printed in Mainz, Germany. Two of these were by Peter Schoeffer, his Latin "Herbarius" in 1484, followed by an updated and enlarged German version in 1485, these being followed in 1491 by the "Hortus Sanitatis" printed by Jacob Meyderbach. Other early printed herbals include the "Kreuterbuch" of Hieronymus Tragus from Germany in 1539 and, in England, the "New Herball" of William Turner in 1551 were arranged, like the classical herbals, either alphabetically, according to their medicinal properties, or as "herbs, shrubs, trees". Arrangement of plants in later herbals such as "Cruydboeck" of Dodoens and John Gerard’s "Herball" of 1597 became more related to their physical similarities and this heralded the beginnings of scientific classification. By 1640 a herbal had been printed that included about 3800 plants - nearly all the plants of the day that were known. In the Modern Age and Renaissance, European herbals diversified and innovated, and came to rely more on direct observation than being mere adaptations of traditional models. Typical examples from the period are the fully illustrated "De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes" by Leonhart Fuchs (1542, with over 400 plants), the astrologically-themed "Complete Herbal by Nicholas Culpeper" (1653), and the "Curious Herbal" by Elizabeth Blackwell (1737). The legacy of the herbal extends beyond medicine to botany and horticulture. Herbal medicine is still practiced in many parts of the world but the traditional grand herbal ended with the European Renaissance, the rise of modern medicine and the use of synthetic and industrialized drugs. The medicinal component of herbals has developed in several ways. Firstly, discussion of plant lore was reduced and with the increased medical content there emerged the official pharmacopoeia. The first British Pharmacopoeia was published in the English language in 1864, but gave such general dissatisfaction both to the medical profession and to chemists and druggists that the General Medical Council brought out a new and amended edition in 1867. Secondly, at a more popular level, there are the books on culinary herbs and herb gardens, medicinal and useful plants. Finally, the enduring desire for simple medicinal information on specific plants has resulted in contemporary herbals that echo the herbals of the past, an example being Maud Grieve's "A Modern Herbal", first published in 1931 but with many subsequent editions. The magical and mystical side of the herbal also lives on. Herbals often explained plant lore, displaying a superstitious or spiritual side. There was, for example, the fanciful doctrine of signatures, the belief that there were similarities in the appearance of the part of the body affected the appearance of the plant to be used as a remedy. The astrology of Culpeper can be seen in contemporary anthroposophy [biodynamic gardening] and alternative medical approaches like homeopathy, aromatherapy and other new age medicine show connections with herbals and traditional medicine. It is sometimes forgotten that the plants described in herbals were grown in special herb gardens [physic gardens]. Such herb gardens were, for example, part of the medieval monastery garden that supplied the simples or officinals used to treat the sick being cared for within the monastery. Early physic gardens were also associated with institutes of learning, whether a monastery, university or herbarium. It was this medieval garden of the 14th to 16th centuries, attended by apothecaries and physicians, that established a tradition leading to the systems gardens of the 18th century [gardens that demonstrated the classification system of plants] and the modern botanical garden. The advent of printing, woodcuts and metal engraving improved the means of communication. Herbals prepared the ground for modern botanical science by pioneering plant description, classification and illustration. From the time of the ancients like Dioscorides through to Parkinson in 1629, the scope of the herbal remained essentially the same. The greatest legacy of the herbal is to botany. Up to the 17th century botany and medicine were one and the same but gradually greater emphasis was placed on the plants rather than their medicinal properties. During the 17th and 18th centuries plant description and classification began to relate plants to one-another and not to man. This was the first glimpse of non-anthropocentric botanical science since Theophrastus and, coupled with the new system of binomial nomenclature resulted in "scientific herbals" called Floras that detailed and illustrated the plants growing in a particular region. Condition: Rare book remains in good overall condition [see images]. Volume bound in contemporary gilt calf [leather]; cover worn, joints cracked, cords intact, cellotape remnants on covers, couple of early ownership bookplates, front endpaper loose, generally clean internally. Volume collates: , 466,  pages; and measures approx 8" tall x 5" wide x 1.5" thick. Quite a find and a very worthy acquisition indeed. Shipping and Payment: Please see our feedback and bid with confidence. For international shipping quote, please contact us. Massachusetts residents must add 6.25% sales tax or include dealer tax resale number. Payment must be received within 7 days after close of auction. Never a reserve and very low opening bid as always. Thanks for your interest! boysells Store